I recently started learning SML, and among the first tools I have needed to reach for were functor and monad instances for some simple SML collection types. This led me to signatures and structures.

Consider the following:

```
val xs = [1,2,3]
fun plusOne(x) = x + 1
```

To apply `plusOne`

to each element in `xs`

, we can use `List#map`

from the SML Basis Library:

`val xs2 = List.map(plusOne)(xs) (* [2,3,4] *)`

The type of `List#map`

is `('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b list`

.

But what if we didn't have access to `List#map`

, or if we wanted a way to generalize `map`

to a common interface? We can define such an interface using a `signature`

:

```
signature Functor =
sig
type 'a t
val map: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a t -> 'b t
end
```

This signature says that a `Functor`

abstracts over some type constructor `t`

to implement a `map`

function that applies a function of type `'a -> 'b`

for arbitrary types `'a`

and `'b`

to whatever `'a`

means in `t`

to produce a `'b t`

.

That's a lot of alphabet soup, so let's be more concrete. To implement a signature, we write a `structure`

:

```
structure ListFunctor:Functor =
struct
type 'a t = 'a list
val map = fn f => fn xs => List.map(f)(xs)
end
```

This structure implements a `Functor`

where `t`

is `list`

. This lets us apply `'a -> 'b`

to each element in a `'a list`

, resulting in a `'b list`

. Behind the scenes we just defer to `List#map`

.

Now we can use it to map `plusOne`

over `xs`

:

`val xs2 = List.map(plusOne)(xs) (* [2,3,4] *)`

Now let's see if we can extend this and make a monad for lists. Here's our signature:

```
signature Monad =
sig
include Functor
val flatMap: 'a t -> ('a -> 'b t) -> 'b t
end
```

This signature extends `Functor`

using the `include`

keyword, and adds an additional function definition, `flatMap`

, which is nearly the same as `map`

, except that the function being applied returns a `'b t`

instead of a flat `'b`

.

To implement `flatMap`

for lists, we can't delegate directly to any single `List`

function, but we can cheat by combining `List#map`

with `List#concat`

:

```
structure ListMonad:Monad =
struct
open ListFunctor
val flatMap = fn xs => fn f => List.concat(List.map(f)(xs))
end
```

The type of `List#concat`

is `'a list list -> 'a list`

.

This structure extends `ListFunctor`

using the `open`

keyword, and implements `flatMap`

by first mapping `f`

over `xs`

, and then flattening the resulting list of lists.

Here's what using `flatMap`

looks like:

```
fun repeat(x) = [x,x,x]
val xs3 = ListMonad.map(plusOne)(xs) (* [2,3,4] *)
val xs4 = ListMonad.flatMap(xs)(repeat) (* [1,1,1,2,2,2,3,3,3] *)
```

Thanks to inheritence, both `ListFunctor#map`

as well as `ListMonad#flatMap`

directly on the list monad instance.