SPR-3926 requests a @Service annotation for Spring Remoting configuration, and makes for an interesting foray into Spring's annotation support.

The goal I had in mind in my initial attempt at tackling this was to create an annotation which would allow specification of the common Spring Remoting configuration supporting the four remoting technologies:

These translate into the ServiceType enumeration, which @Service annotated services use to specify their desired remoting technology.

public enum ServiceType {

Spring makes the task easy, as configuration for each of these requires no more than the identification of the service interface.

The @Service annotation needs to define only two key pieces of information: the remoting technology to use, and the service interface to expose.

@Target({ ElementType.TYPE })
public @interface Service {

    ServiceType serviceType() default ServiceType.HTTP;

    Class<?> serviceInterface();

An InstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessorAdapter handles interpreting @Service annotated classes by instantiating the appropriate RemoteExporter, and initializing its serviceInterface and serviceName properties.

public class ServiceAnnotationBeanPostProcessor extends InstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessorAdapter implements PriorityOrdered {

    private int order = Ordered.LOWEST_PRECEDENCE - 1;

    public Object postProcessAfterInitialization(Object bean, String beanName) throws BeansException {

        Service service = AnnotationUtils.findAnnotation(bean.getClass(), Service.class);

        Object resultBean = bean;

        if (null != service) {

            if (ServiceType.HTTP == service.serviceType()) {

                HttpInvokerServiceExporter httpInvokerServiceExporter = new HttpInvokerServiceExporter();
                resultBean = httpInvokerServiceExporter;

            } else if (ServiceType.HESSIAN == service.serviceType()) {

                HessianServiceExporter hessianServiceExporter = new HessianServiceExporter();
                resultBean = hessianServiceExporter;

            } else if (ServiceType.BURLAP == service.serviceType()) {

                BurlapServiceExporter burlapServiceExporter = new BurlapServiceExporter();
                resultBean = burlapServiceExporter;

            } else if (ServiceType.RMI == service.serviceType()) {

                RmiServiceExporter rmiServiceExporter = new RmiServiceExporter();
                try {
                } catch (RemoteException remoteException) {
                    throw new FatalBeanException("Exception initializing RmiServiceExporter", remoteException);
                resultBean = rmiServiceExporter;

        return resultBean;

    public Object postProcessBeforeInitialization(Object bean, String beanName) throws BeansException {
        return bean;

    public void setOrder(int order) {
        this.order = order;

    public int getOrder() {
        return order;

The ServiceAnnotationBeanPostProcessor must be added to the appropriate bean definition registry, which in this case occurs in AnnotationConfigUtils#registerAnnotationConfigProcessors.

if (!registry.containsBeanDefinition(SERVICE_ANNOTATION_PROCESSOR_BEAN_NAME)) {
    RootBeanDefinition def = new RootBeanDefinition(ServiceAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.class);
    beanDefs.add(registerPostProcessor(registry, def, SERVICE_ANNOTATION_PROCESSOR_BEAN_NAME));

That's all there is to it. To take the new @Service annotation for a test run, a test service interface is defined, and a test implementation is written and annotated.

public interface DateService {
    public Date getDate();
@Service(serviceInterface = DateService.class, serviceType = ServiceType.HTTP)
public class DateServiceImpl implements DateService {

    public Date getDate() {
        return new Date();

DateServiceImpl uses the @Service annotation to identify DateService as its service interface, and Spring's HTTP invoker as the remoting technology. The Spring configuration on the server side is now quite simple.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-3.1.xsd
                      http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-3.1.xsd">

  <context:annotation-config />

  <bean id="/DateService" class="com.earldouglas.springremoting.DateServiceImpl" />


The service is linked in at the client in the usual way, and neither the client nor the server's application context notice the difference.

It would be interesting and probably worthwhile to explore JAX-RPC, JAX-WS, and JMS in addition the four remoting technologies already supported by the new @Service annotation, and may make for a future post.

As usual, the Spring Reference is a great resource for learning more.

The source code for this article is available on GitHub.